This report gives an outline of the efforts and results over a hundred years as international bodies, national authorities and forensic experts have been trying to assess and compare hazards associated with various drugs under narcotics control. It is based on an extensive review of the literature conducted after the issue was raised in a drug case before the Swedish Supreme Court in 2011.
Jonas Hartelius, MBA, CPP, is a former Chair of the Board of Directors of the Swedish Carnegie Institute (SCI). He is also an Assistant Editor of the Editorial Board of the Swedish Narcotic Officers’ Association (SNPF).
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Jonas Hartelius and Edgar Borgenhammar
Corruption is commonly defined as ‘abuse of public trust for private gain’. It is a threat to the rule of law, a challenge to human rights and an obstacle to conflict resolution. Corruption also constitutes a decisive causal or operational factor in a large number of specific threats to international security, such as the uncontrolled sale of restricted technology used in unlawful production of weapons of mass destruction.
Measures to prevent, detect and stop corruption should become a regular feature in any program dealing with international security issues. This should be done by legislation, law enforcement, opinion shaping, codifying of professional ethics etc. Value issues and transparency guidelines should be core themes for any educational or training activity in fields where corruption could arise.
In this report, the authors present a comprehensive and systemsbased overview of the problems associated with corruption and offer a set of recommendations for coordinated countermeasures.
The publisher hopes this report will contribute to the public discussions about the serious threat to international security caused by corruption and about the need to develop effective countermeasures.
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The Swedish psychiatrist Nils Bejerot MD (1921–1988) was the first physician ever to professionally diagnose a case of intravenous amphetamine abuse in Sweden (and probably also in the world). He devoted his scientific and public life to analyzing, monitoring and stopping modern drug abuse epidemics. For more than 20 years he had a prominent role in the shaping of public opinion in Sweden and finally succeeded in turning Swedish drug control policy into a more restrictive direction. This overview describes in detail Bejerot’s contribution through research and policy development to modern drug control.
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The rapid development of new dependence-producing substances and new modes of distribution on a global scale has created new challenges to public authorities and law enforcement agencies involved in drug control. Some of the challenges include the tracking of new substances, documenting their effects and risks, scheduling them as narcotic drugs, and, when scheduled, stopping the unlawful importation and sale of the substances.
The Swedish Carnegie Institute (SCI) and the Swedish Narcotic Officers’ Association (SNPF) have for many years been involved in this field. Since 1983, SCI has been assessing new drugs to provide summaries for police investigators, prosecutors and courts. SNPF, through its members, is a steady source for reports and warnings about new drugs or drug-related hazards.
In this separate report, Mr. Jonas Hartelius gives a detailed description of the systems used for monitoring and scheduling new drugs in Sweden. The two main texts were originally published through the SNPF Journal (2006) and the SCI homepage (2010). For this report, the author has updated and edited the texts. The report has been produced within the SCI research programme “The foundations and development of drug control”.
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